Standards and Certificates

This section would like to give you an introduction to the standards used to build repositories and making them communicate. Also certification of these essential services is equally important as it comes as a recognition for institution's efforts to ensure a top exchange framework for research output.

Standards are used to regulate the way information is stored and flows from one repository to the next and certificates ensures that the repository abides to the common set of rules envisaged to ease communication and dissemination.

This section is to be looked as being the initiation into the sensible matter of regulations and commonly accepted codes.

Here we will make an introduction of the heavily used standard OAI-PMH and also we will have the standard in itself. Complementary to the standard are the certificates and all the attached efforts that many international bodies have invested into making repository infrastructures more reliable and internationally acknowledged as being “trusted”.

This tutorial is intended for those who are interested in more technical aspects of the OAI-PMH, although the Overview and the History and Development of OAI-PMH, together with the Glossary, are suitable for those who simply require some general background information. Each part builds on the material in the earlier parts, so a good approach is to work through the parts in order, referring to the glossary as required. In addition to the Glossary, you will find key terms defined within each part of the tutorial. Sets of quick quiz questions for the introductory sections help you to check whether you've picked up key points along the way.

Overview (this part) introduces the basic concepts underlying the OAI and the OAI-PMH. Use this part to gain an understanding of what the OAI-PMH is, and what it does and does not provide. History and Development of OAI-PMH covers the emergence of the Open Archives Initiative, showing how it grew from roots in several earlier initiatives, and discussing the nature of the problems for which it aims to provide solutions. This part also surveys the development of the protocol (including the evolving nature, aims and technical components) from the Santa Fe Convention, through OAI-PMH v.1.0/1.1, to OAI-PMH v.2.0.

The rest of the tutorial contains more technical material. The Main Technical Ideas of OAI-PMH introduces and explains in some detail the key technical elements of the protocol. Implementing OAI-PMH outlines implementation issues for Data Providers and Service Providers; it explains how to implement OAI-PMH as a Data Provider and as a Service Provider, including both the necessary steps for a local implementation and several examples of freely available and adaptable tools for implementations. XML Schemas and Record Formats provides an overview of the implementation of a Data Provider metadata set, including coverage of XML schema and how to support multiple record formats.

{xtypo_info}Read the original source{/xtypo_info}

Protocol Version 2.0 of 2002-06-14
Document Version 2008-12-07T20:42:00Z

The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (referred to as the OAI-PMH in the remainder of this document) provides an application-independent interoperability framework based on metadata harvesting. There are two classes of participants in the OAI-PMH framework:

  • - Data Providers administer systems that support the OAI-PMH as a means of exposing metadata; and
  • - Service Providers use metadata harvested via the OAI-PMH as a basis for building value-added services.

In this document the key words "must", "must not", " required", "shall", "shall not", "should", " should not", "recommended", "may", and "optional " in bold face are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 . An implementation is not conformant if it fails to satisfy one or more of the "must" or "required" level requirements for the protocols it implements.

This document refers in several places to "community-specific" practices to which individual protocol implementations may conform. These practices are described in an accompanying Implementation Guidelines document.

Open Archives Initiatives

{xtypo_download}Download standard{/xtypo_download}



Standards here are to be taken as commonly accepted codes for treating subjects and applying practices in the same manner when scholarly communication issues are at stake. Some of the presented documents are backed by wide international adoption via ISO, NISO, DIN, OASIS, BSI or similar bodies. In order to get the maximum effect in terms of effective dissemination, the communication standards used for building aggregation and harvesting services, are to be open or based on open technologies. This is in fact the only way of achieving interoperability, a so much needed state of layer of common ground.
The standards and the additional materials here on display are important for scholarly communication and also for establishing aggregated services for scientific information dissemination.
The start naturally should be the language for repository data exchange: OAI-PMH.
OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) is a protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative. It is used to harvest (or collect) the metadata descriptions of the records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives. An implementation of OAI-PMH must support representing metadata in Dublin Core, but may also support additional representations. The protocol is usually just referred to as the OAI Protocol. OAI-PMH uses XML over HTTP. The current version is 2.0, updated in 2002.


At this moment there are initiatives and projects whose aim is to establish what a trusted digital repository is and what would be the criteria for such a repository to gain the trusted status? We should point out a few important activities out there:

- nestor (German agency assigned the task of providing libraries, archives and museums information and training on digital preservation) - Criteria for Trusted Digital Long-Term Preservation Repositories - Version 1 (Request for Public Comment)

- OAIS (2002) "Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS): CCSDS 650.0-B-1: Blue Book" . Edited by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems

- Digital Curation Centre and DigitalPreservationEurope, “DCC and DPE Digital Repository Audit Method Based on Risk Assessment, v1.0.

- CRL (Center for Research Libraries) – TRAC: Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification: Criteria and Checklist

- Core Requirements

And of course the well known DINI Certificate being one of the most concise forms for digital repository requirements in order for one to gain the status of trusted. DINI offers a quality control for Document and Publication Services. A set of mandatory minimum requirements of a service and its provider must be attained, prior to the award of the DINI Certificate. Fulfilling these requirements is essential in order to allow modern scholarly communication. At the same time, DINI makes recommendations with regard to foreseeable developments that might become future requirements.

{xtypo_download}DINI Certificate{/xtypo_download}