Declarations and Official Positions

Here you'll find the arch known BBB: Berlin-Budapest-Bethesda declarations. We consider to be equally important to have the official position of IFLA and for this purpose we have here IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation and IFLA/IPA Declaration.

IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) is committed to ensuring the widest possible access to information for all peoples in accordance with the principles expressed in the Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom.

IFLA acknowledges that the discovery, contention, elaboration and application of research in all fields will enhance progress, sustainability and human well being. Peer reviewed scholarly literature is a vital element in the processes of research and scholarship. It is supported by a range of research documentation, which includes pre-prints, technical reports and records of research data.

IFLA declares that the world-wide network of library and information services provides access to past, present and future scholarly literature and research documentation; ensures its preservation; assists users in discovery and use; and offers educational programs to enable users to develop lifelong literacies.

IFLA affirms that comprehensive open access to scholarly literature and research documentation is vital to the understanding of our world and to the identification of solutions to global challenges and particularly the reduction of information inequality.

Open access guarantees the integrity of the system of scholarly communication by ensuring that all research and scholarship will be available in perpetuity for unrestricted examination and, where relevant, elaboration or refutation.

IFLA recognises the important roles played by all involved in the recording and dissemination of research, including authors, editors, publishers, libraries and institutions, and advocates the adoption of the following open access principles in order to ensure the widest possible availability of scholarly literature and research documentation:

  1. Acknowledgement and defence of the moral rights of authors, especially the rights of attribution and integrity.

  2. Adoption of effective peer review processes to assure the quality of scholarly literature irrespective of mode of publication.

  3. Resolute opposition to governmental, commercial or institutional censorship of the publications deriving from research and scholarship.

  4. Succession to the public domain of all scholarly literature and research documentation at the expiration of the limited period of copyright protection provided by law, which period should be limited to a reasonable time, and the exercise of fair use provisions, unhindered by technological or other constraints, to ensure ready access by researchers and the general public during the period of protection.

  5. Implementation of measures to overcome information inequality by enabling both publication of quality assured scholarly literature and research documentation by researchers and scholars who may be disadvantaged, and also ensuring effective and affordable access for the peoples of developing nations and all who experience disadvantage including the disabled.

  6. Support for collaborative initiatives to develop sustainable open access* publishing models and facilities including encouragement, such as the removal of contractual obstacles, for authors to make scholarly literature and research documentation available without charge.

  7. Implementation of legal, contractual and technical mechanisms to ensure the preservation and perpetual availability, usability and authenticity of all scholarly literature and research documentation.

This statement was adopted by the Governing Board of IFLA at its meeting in The Hague on 5th December 2003.

Definition of open access publication:

An open access publication is one that meets the following two conditions:

  1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, world-wide, perpetual (for the lifetime of the applicable copyright) right of access to, and a licence to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.

  2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organisation that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.

An open access publication is a property of individual works, not necessarily of journals or of publishers.

Community standards, rather than copyright law, will continue to provide the mechanism for enforcement of proper attribution and responsible use of the published work, as they do now.

This definition of open access publication has been taken from A Position statement by the Wellcome Trust in support of open access publishing and was based on the definition arrived at by delegates who attended a meeting on open access publishing convened by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in July 2003.

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A joint statement by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions and the International Publishers Association


The debate about open access in scholarly communication is an important opportunity for the international library and publishing communities to explore how technology and new business models can resolve the challenge of growing scholarly publishing output which puts pressure on publisher prices and library resources. IFLA and IPA welcome the widespread attention this extremely important issue has received. The debate has, however, occasionally been harmed by unnecessary polarisations and sweeping generalised statements.

IFLA and IPA believe that the time is right for the debate to develop, as hypotheses and speculation can gradually be enhanced by case-by-case experience and empirical data. The debate should be conducted in an open-minded way, encouraging experimentation and arguments based on empirical facts and following the principles of academic discourse.

IFLA and IPA share a common set of basic understandings and believe that the observance of the shared ground as set out below would enhance the overall debate.

  1. IFLA and IPA value the contribution to scholarly communication that publishers and libraries have made and believe that mutual respect is important to enhance the quality of the public discourse on open access.

  2. IFLA and IPA recognise that the concerns of academic authors must be at the heart of this debate - their scientific freedom, and their needs as researchers, teachers, authors, reviewers and users are paramount.

  3. IFLA and IPA acknowledge that the broadest possible access to scholarly communications is an important shared objective and that potential access to all research by all researchers, irrespective of geographical location or institutional affiliation is a shared aspiration of libraries and publishers.

  4. All assumptions surrounding open access and scholarly communications should be open to scientific scrutiny and academic debate. All stakeholders are encouraged to innovate, experiment and explore the new opportunities that technology brings.

  5. IFLA and IPA recognise that access must be sustainable, i.e. that economic long-term viability and long-term archiving are important elements of this debate.

  6. IFLA and IPA agree that the debate is most effective if it recognises the potential diversity of scholarly communication in different academic disciplines and different types of publications, e.g, research journals, review journals, monographs, text books, etc. IFLA and IPA support a debate that avoids general conclusions for all scholarly communication but gives a closer, differentiated focus on the potentially very different framework in various academic disciplines and types of publications.

  7. Equally, scholarly publishers and their specific roles and functions can vary greatly. Scholarly publishing includes publishers with a variety of commercial and non-commercial affiliations and interests, outside and within the research community.

  8. IFLA and IPA believe publishers, librarians, government and funding agencies should at this stage support innovation, experimentation and pilot schemes on access to scholarly publications. Pilot schemes should be accompanied by vigorous research and analysis that enables evaluation against measurable targets, that reflect the chief concerns of academic authors (as set out in Point 2), as the basis for an enriched, fact-oriented debate. As part of investigating the feasibility of open access, studies should also explore such matters as impact, transparency and economic models. Data should be shared openly among stakeholders or disclosed to allow open scrutiny. The results from these studies should provide better insight into the processes surrounding open access.

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Released June 20, 2003 Summary of the April 11, 2003, Meeting on Open Access PublishingThe following statements of principle were drafted during a one-day meeting held on April 11, 2003 at the headquarters of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland. The purpose of this document is to stimulate discussion within the biomedical research community on how to proceed, as rapidly as possible, to the widely held goal of providing open access to the primary scientific literature. Our goal was to agree on significant, concrete steps that all relevant parties —the organizations that foster and support scientific research, the scientists that generate the research results, the publishers who facilitate the peer-review and distribution of results of the research, and the scientists, librarians and other who depend on access to this knowledge— can take to promote the rapid and efficient transition to open access publishing.A list of the attendees is given following the statements of principle; they participated as individuals and not necessarily as representatives of their institutions. Thus, this statement, while reflecting the group consensus, should not be interpreted as carrying the unqualified endorsement of each participant or any position by their institutions.Our intention is to reconvene an expanded group in a few months to draft a final set of principles that we will then seek to have formally endorsed by funding agencies, scientific societies, publishers, librarians, research institutions and individual scientists as the accepted standard for publication of peer-reviewed reports of original research in the biomedical sciences.The document is divided into four sections: The first is a working definition of open access publication. This is followed by the reports of three working groups.Definition of Open Access PublicationAn Open Access Publication[1] is one that meets the following two conditions:   1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship[2], as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.   2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving (for the biomedical sciences, PubMed Central is such a repository). Notes:1. Open access is a property of individual works, not necessarily journals or publishers.2. Community standards, rather than copyright law, will continue to provide the mechanism for enforcement of proper attribution and responsible use of the published work, as they do now.Statement of the Institutions and Funding Agencies Working GroupOur organizations sponsor and nurture scientific research to promote the creation and dissemination of new ideas and knowledge for the public benefit. We recognize that publication of results is an essential part of scientific research and the costs of publication are part of the cost of doing research. We already expect that our faculty and grantees share their ideas and discoveries through publication. This mission is only half-completed if the work is not made as widely available and as useful to society as possible. The Internet has fundamentally changed the practical and economic realities of distributing published scientific knowledge and makes possible substantially increased access.To realize the benefits of this change requires a corresponding fundamental change in our policies regarding publication by our grantees and faculty:   1. We encourage our faculty/grant recipients to publish their work according to the principles of the open access model, to maximize the access and benefit to scientists, scholars and the public throughout the world.   2. We realize that moving to open and free access, though probably decreasing total costs, may displace some costs to the individual researcher through page charges, or to publishers through decreased revenues, and we pledge to help defray these costs. To this end we agree to help fund the necessary expenses of publication under the open access model of individual papers in peer-reviewed journals (subject to reasonable limits based on market conditions and services provided).   3. We reaffirm the principle that only the intrinsic merit of the work, and not the title of the journal in which a candidate’s work is published, will be considered in appointments, promotions, merit awards or grants.   4. We will regard a record of open access publication as evidence of service to the community, in evaluation of applications for faculty appointments, promotions and grants. We adopt these policies in the expectation that the publishers of scientific works share our desire to maximize public benefit from scientific knowledge and will view these new policies as they are intended —an opportunity to work together for the benefit of the scientific community and the public.Statement of the Libraries & Publishers Working GroupWe believe that open access will be an essential component of scientific publishing in the future and that works reporting the results of current scientific research should be as openly accessible and freely useable as possible. Libraries and publishers should make every effort to hasten this transition in a fashion that does not disrupt the orderly dissemination of scientific information.Libraries propose to:   1. Develop and support mechanisms to make the transition to open access publishing and to provide examples of these mechanisms to the community.   2. In our education and outreach activities, give high priority to teaching our users about the benefits of open access publishing and open access journals.   3. List and highlight open access journals in our catalogs and other relevant databases. Journal publishers propose to:   1. Commit to providing an open access option for any research article published in any of the journals they publish.   2. Declare a specific timetable for transition of journals to open access models.   3. Work with other publishers of open access works and interested parties to develop tools for authors and publishers to facilitate publication of manuscripts in standard electronic formats suitable for archival storage and efficient searching.   4. Ensure that open access models requiring author fees lower barriers to researchers at demonstrated financial disadvantage, particularly those from developing countries. Statement of Scientists and Scientific Societies Working GroupScientific research is an interdependent process whereby each experiment is informed by the results of others. The scientists who perform research and the professional societies that represent them have a great interest in ensuring that research results are disseminated as immediately, broadly and effectively as possible. Electronic publication of research results offers the opportunity and the obligation to share research results, ideas and discoveries freely with the scientific community and the public.Therefore:   1. We endorse the principles of the open access model.   2. We recognize that publishing is a fundamental part of the research process, and the costs of publishing are a fundamental cost of doing research.   3. Scientific societies agree to affirm their strong support for the open access model and their commitment to ultimately achieve open access for all the works they publish. They will share information on the steps they are taking to achieve open access with the community they serve and with others who might benefit from their experience.   4. Scientists agree to manifest their support for open access by selectively publishing in, reviewing for and editing for open access journals and journals that are effectively making the transition to open access.   5. Scientists agree to advocate changes in promotion and tenure evaluation in order to recognize the community contribution of open access publishing and to recognize the intrinsic merit of individual articles without regard to the titles of the journals in which they appear.   6. Scientists and societies agree that education is an indispensable part of achieving open access, and commit to educate their colleagues, members and the public about the importance of open access and why they support it. List of ParticipantsDr. Patrick O. BrownHoward Hughes Medical InstituteStanford University School of Medicine, andPublic Library of ScienceMs. Diane CabellAssociate DirectorThe Berkman Center for Internet & Society  at Harvard Law SchoolDr. Aravinda ChakravartiDirector, McKusick-Nathans Institute of  Genetic Medicine at Johns Hopkins  University, andEditor, Genome ResearchDr. Barbara CohenSenior EditorPublic Library of ScienceDr. Tony DelamotheBMJ Publishing GroupUnited KingdomDr. Michael EisenLawrence Berkeley National LabUniversity of California Berkeley, andPublic Library of ScienceDr. Les GrivellProgramme ManagerEuropean Molecular Biology OrganizationGermanyProf. Jean-Claude GuédonProfessor of Comparative Literature,University of Montreal, andMember of the Information Sub-Board,  Open Society InstituteDr. R. Scott HawleyGenetics Society of AmericaMr. Richard K. JohnsonEnterprise DirectorSPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic  Resources Coalition)Dr. Marc W. KirschnerHarvard Medical SchoolDr. David LipmanDirector, NCBINational Library of MedicineNational Institutes of Health    Mr. Arnold P. LutzkerLutzker & Lutzker, LLPOutside Counsel for Open Society InstituteMs. Elizabeth MarincolaExecutive DirectorThe American Society for Cell BiologyDr. Richard J. RobertsNew England BiolabsDr. Gerald M. RubinVice President and Director, Janelia Farm  Research CampusHoward Hughes Medical InstituteProf. Robert SchloeglChair, Task Force on Electronic PublishingMax-Planck-Gesellschaft, GermanyDr. Vivian SiegelExecutive EditorPublic Library of ScienceDr. Anthony D. SoHealth Equity DivisionThe Rockefeller FoundationDr. Peter SuberProfessor of Philosophy, Earlham CollegeOpen Access Project Director, Public KnowledgeSenior Researcher, SPARCDr. Harold E. VarmusPresident, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterChair, Board of Directors, Public Library of ScienceMr. Jan VelteropPublisherBioMed CentralUnited KingdomDr. Mark J. WalportDirector DesignateThe Wellcome TrustUnited KingdomMs. Linda WatsonDirectorClaude Moore Health Sciences LibraryUniversity of Virginia Health System
PrefaceThe Internet has fundamentally changed the practical and economic realities of distributing scientific knowledge and cultural heritage. For the first time ever, the Internet now offers the chance to constitute a global and interactive representation of human knowledge, including cultural heritage and the guarantee of worldwide access.We, the undersigned, feel obliged to address the challenges of the Internet as an emerging functional medium for distributing knowledge. Obviously, these developments will be able to significantly modify the nature of scientific publishing as well as the existing system of quality assurance.In accordance with the spirit of the Declaration of the Budapest Open Acess Initiative, the ECHO Charter and the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, we have drafted the Berlin Declaration to promote the Internet as a functional instrument for a global scientific knowledge base and human reflection and to specify measures which research policy makers, research institutions, funding agencies, libraries, archives and museums need to consider.GoalsOur mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported. We define open access as a comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community.In order to realize the vision of a global and accessible representation of knowledge, the future Web has to be sustainable, interactive, and transparent. Content and software tools must be openly accessible and compatible.Definition of an Open Access ContributionEstablishing open access as a worthwhile procedure ideally requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage. Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw data and metadata, source materials, digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials and scholarly multimedia material.Open access contributions must satisfy two conditions:   1. The author(s) and right holder(s) of such contributions grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship (community standards, will continue to provide the mechanism for enforcement of proper attribution and responsible use of the published work, as they do now), as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.   2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in an appropriate standard electronic format is deposited (and thus published) in at least one online repository using suitable technical standards (such as the Open Archive definitions) that is supported and maintained by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, inter operability, and long-term archiving.Supporting the Transition to the Electronic Open Access ParadigmOur organizations are interested in the further promotion of the new open access paradigm to gain the most benefit for science and society. Therefore, we intend to make progress by encouraging our researchers/grant recipients to publish their work according to the principles of the open access paradigm. encouraging the holders of cultural heritage to support open access by providing their resources on the Internet. developing means and ways to evaluate open access contributions and online-journals in order to maintain the standards of quality assurance and good scientific practice. advocating that open access publication be recognized in promotion and tenure evaluation. advocating the intrinsic merit of contributions to an open access infrastructure by software tool development, content provision, metadata creation, or the publication of individual articles. We realize that the process of moving to open access changes the dissemination of knowledge with respect to legal and financial aspects. Our organizations aim to find solutions that support further development of the existing legal and financial frameworks in order to facilitate optimal use and access.On behalf of the German research organisations (in alphabetical order): Hans-Jörg Bullinger  President Fraunhofer SocietyPeter GaethgensPresident HRKHans-Olaf HenkelPresident Leibniz AssociationErnst-Ludwig WinnackerPresident German Research FoundationKarl Max Einhäupl Chairman of the WissenschaftsratPeter Gruss President Max Planck Society Walter Kröll President Helmholtz Association Further national & international Signatories:  Bernard Larouturou Director General, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)                              Jürgen Mittelstraß President, Academia Europaea               Paolo Galluzzi Director, Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence      Friedrich Geisselmann,  Head, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband                            Yehuda Elkana President and Rector,  Central European University Budapest  Jean-Claude Guédon Director, Open Society Institute                           Martin Roth  Director General, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden  Christian Bréchot Director General, Institut National del la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)  José Miguel Ruano Leon Minister of Education Cultura y Deportes Gobierno de Canarias                          Dieter Simon President, Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities                         Jens Braarvig Director, Norwegian Institute of Palaeography and Historical Philology  Peter Schirmbacher,  CEO of the Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation
An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge. For various reasons, this kind of free and unrestricted online availability, which we will call open access, has so far been limited to small portions of the journal literature. But even in these limited collections, many different initiatives have shown that open access is economically feasible, that it gives readers extraordinary power to find and make use of relevant literature, and that it gives authors and their works vast and measurable new visibility, readership, and impact. To secure these benefits for all, we call on all interested institutions and individuals to help open up access to the rest of this literature and remove the barriers, especially the price barriers, that stand in the way. The more who join the effort to advance this cause, the sooner we will all enjoy the benefits of open access. The literature that should be freely accessible online is that which scholars give to the world without expectation of payment. Primarily, this category encompasses their peer-reviewed journal articles, but it also includes any unreviewed preprints that they might wish to put online for comment or to alert colleagues to important research findings. There are many degrees and kinds of wider and easier access to this literature. By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. While  the peer-reviewed journal literature should be accessible online without cost to readers, it is not costless to produce. However, experiments show that the overall costs of providing open access to this literature are far lower than the costs of traditional forms of dissemination. With such an opportunity to save money and expand the scope of dissemination at the same time, there is today a strong incentive for professional associations, universities, libraries, foundations, and others to embrace open access as a means of advancing their missions. Achieving open access will require new cost recovery models and financing mechanisms, but the significantly lower overall cost of dissemination is a reason to be confident that the goal is attainable and not merely preferable or utopian. To achieve open access to scholarly journal literature, we recommend two complementary strategies. I.  Self-Archiving: First, scholars need the tools and assistance to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives, a practice commonly called, self-archiving. When these archives conform to standards created by the Open Archives Initiative, then search engines and other tools can treat the separate archives as one. Users then need not know which archives exist or where they are located in order to find and make use of their contents. II. Open-access Journals: Second, scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to other methods for covering their expenses. There are many alternative sources of funds for this purpose, including the foundations and governments that fund research, the universities and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments set up by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, profits from the sale of add-ons to the basic texts, funds freed up by the demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access fees, or even contributions from the researchers themselves. There is no need to favor one of these solutions over the others for all disciplines or nations, and no need to stop looking for other, creative alternatives. Open access to peer-reviewed journal literature is the goal. Self-archiving (I.) and a new generation of open-access journals (II.) are the ways to attain this goal. They are not only direct and effective means to this end, they are within the reach of scholars themselves, immediately, and need not wait on changes brought about by markets or legislation. While we endorse the two strategies just outlined, we also encourage experimentation with further ways to make the transition from the present methods of dissemination to open access. Flexibility, experimentation, and adaptation to local circumstances are the best ways to assure that progress in diverse settings will be rapid, secure, and long-lived. The Open Society Institute, the foundation network founded by philanthropist George Soros, is committed to providing initial help and funding to realize this goal. It will use its resources and influence to extend and promote institutional self-archiving, to launch new open-access journals, and to help an open-access journal system become economically self-sustaining. While the Open Society Institute's commitment and resources are substantial, this initiative is very much in need of other organizations to lend their effort and resources. We invite governments, universities, libraries, journal editors, publishers, foundations, learned societies, professional associations, and individual scholars who share our vision to join us in the task of removing the barriers to open access and building a future in which research and education in every part of the world are that much more free to flourish. February 14, 2002Budapest, Hungary Leslie Chan: Bioline InternationalDarius Cuplinskas: Director, Information Program, Open Society InstituteMichael Eisen: Public Library of ScienceFred Friend: Director Scholarly Communication, University College LondonYana Genova: Next Page FoundationJean-Claude Guédon: University of MontrealMelissa Hagemann: Program Officer, Information Program, Open Society InstituteStevan Harnad: Professor of Cognitive Science, University of Southampton, Universite du Quebec a MontrealRick Johnson: Director, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC)Rima Kupryte: Open Society InstituteManfredi La Manna: Electronic Society for Social ScientistsIstván Rév: Open Society Institute, Open Society ArchivesMonika Segbert: eIFL Project consultantSidnei de Souza: Informatics Director at CRIA, Bioline InternationalPeter Suber: Professor of Philosophy, Earlham College & The Free Online Scholarship NewsletterJan Velterop: Publisher, BioMed Central